Final Manuscript Formatting Requirements

Authors are encouraged to follow the typesetting and layout requirements as guidelines in preparing their manuscript for initial submission and peer review. All manuscripts accepted for publication must meet these requirements.


  • Submit your manuscript, including tables, figures, appendices, etc., as a single file. As manuscript files need to be easily accessible by a number of different persons involved in the refereeing and the revision of manuscript, only the following files are accepted: .doc, .docx, or .rtf.
  • Do not, however, include a title page or abstract in this file. Begin the document with the main body of the article. The online submission process will prompt you to enter the title of your paper and an abstract in separate data fields. 
  • Write your article in English or French.
  • Page size should be 8.5 x 11-inches.
  • All margins (left, right, top and bottom) should be 1.5 inches (3.8 cm), including your tables and figures.
  • Single space your text.
  • Page numbering should appear at the bottom of each page and be centre-aligned.
  • Use a single column layout.
  • Font:
    1. Main Body—12 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
    2. SWOT Table and Footnotes—10 pt. Times or the closest comparable font available
  • All figures and tables should be embedded in the main text of the manuscript.  Figures should be high-resolution.
  • Copyedit your manuscript.


Indenting, Line Spacing, and Justification
Indent all paragraphs except those following a section heading. An indent should be 1 cm.

Do not insert extra space between paragraphs of text with the exception of long quotations, theorems, propositions, special remarks, etc. These should be set off from the surrounding text by additional space above and below.

Language & Grammar
All submissions must be in English or French.

Authors should follow Canadian English or Québécois French spelling conventions as set out in: Canadian Oxford Dictionary, 2nd ed. Oxford University Press or Canadian Oxford Dictionary Online  and Le grand dictionnaire terminologique (GDT), Office québécois de la langue française. In matters of style other than those detailed below please refer to The Chicago Manual of Style, 16th ed. University of Chicago Press or Chicago Manual of Style Online.

Emphasized Text
Whenever possible use italics to indicate text you wish to emphasize rather than underlining it.

Foreign Terms
Whenever possible, foreign terms should be set in italics rather than underlined.

LEVEL 1 HEADINGS should be flush-left and appear in all caps and boldface. Level 2 Headings should be flush-left, sentence case, and appear in boldface. 

Whenever possible, titles of books, movies, etc., should be set in italics rather than underlined.

Footnotes should appear at the bottom of the page on which they are referenced rather than at the end of the paper. Footnotes should be in 10 pt. Using Times or closest comparable font available, they should be single spaced, and there should be a footnote separator rule (line). Footnote numbers or symbols in the text must follow, rather than precede, punctuation. Excessively long footnotes are probably better handled in an appendix. 

Tables and Figures
Tables and figures should have short, descriptive titles that appear above the table or figure. All footnotes to tables and their source(s) should be typed below the tables. Column headings should clearly define the data presented. Tables and figures should appear in the document near where they are referenced in the text. Large tables or figures should be put on pages by themselves. Avoid the use of overly small type (less than 8 pt font) in tables. In no case should tables or figures be in a separate document or file. All tables and figures must fit within 1.5" (3.8 cm) margins on all sides (top, bottom, left and right) in both portrait and landscape view.

Spell out whole numbers from one through ten, round numbers, and numbers beginning a sentence.

In the main text as well as in Tables and Figures, percentages should be given in numerals followed by %.

Specific dates are expressed using cardinal numbers. The day-month-year date style is preferred (e.g., The amendment was approved on 12 April 2012.

Decades are expressed in numerals. No apostrophe appears between the year and the s (e.g., the 1980s and 90s).

In general, short quotations, especially ones that are not a full sentence, are run in – that is, integrated into the text in the same type size and font and enclosed in quotation marks. A hundred words or more – or at least eight lines – are set off as a block quotation (indented from both the right and left margins). Block quotations are not enclosed in quotation marks.

Quoted sentences run into the text are enclosed in double quotation marks. Single quotation marks enclose quotations within a quotation, and single words and phrases.  Although material set off as a block quotation is not enclosed in quotation marks, quoted matter within the block quotation is enclosed in double quotation marks.

Periods and commas precede closing quotation marks, whether double or single.  Colons, semicolons, question marks, and exclamation points, however, follow closing quotation marks unless a question mark or exclamation point belongs within the quoted matter.

Text Citations
All sources should be cited using author-date format. Author-date citations within the text are listed with the punctuation shown below:

(Smith 2002; 2009; Smith and Jones 2011, 45)

Separate years from page numbers with a comma. Separate works from one another with a semicolon. If listing two works by the same author, repeat only the year. List up to three authors of a single work. If a work has four or more authors, list only the first and use “et al.” (Stabile, Laporte, Coyte 2006; Lavis et al. 2006, 621). If two or more works share the same authors and dates, use “a,” “b,” and so on to distinguish among them (e.g., Asada 2010a; 2010b)

References, however, should list all authors.

Author-date citations are usually placed just before a mark of punctuation. If syntax permits, an author-date citation may precede a quotation.

Where the author’s name appears in the text, it need not be repeated in the parenthetical citation.

With long quotations set off as a block of text indented from the right and left margins, citations appear at the end of the block quotation. The opening parenthesis appears after the final punctuation mark of the quoted material. No period either precedes or follows the closing parenthesis.

It is the author's obligation to provide complete references with the necessary information. After the last sentence of your submission, please insert a line break—not a page break—and begin your references on the same page, if possible, beginning with the Level 1 Heading, “REFERENCES”.

References should contain only works cited in the article. Authors have the option of including a For More Detail list of resources in addition to the References. This list may include media releases; government reports; contact information (lead author and/or policy contact); and/or one or two seminal, insightful pieces from the academic literature). The For More Detail list should appear right after the list of References.

References and, where possible, items in the For More Detail list should have margins that are both left and right- justified. You may choose not to right-justify the margin of one or more references if the spacing looks too awkward.

References should be listed alphabetically by author surname, and by year of publication, from oldest to newest work in style shown below. Note that all titles except periodicals are in sentence style, with only the first word and proper nouns capitalized. Book and journal titles appear in italics. No quotation marks are used around titles. An author’s edited works are listed after authored ones.


Canada Health Act, Revised Statutes of Canada (R.S.C. 1985, c. C-6) Department of Justice Canada., as of 18 February 2013.

Emery H, Ferrer A. 2012. The social rate of return to investing in character: an economic evaluation of Alberta's Immigrant Access Fund small loan program. Department of Economics, University of Calgary Working Paper Series, #2012-01., as of 18 February 2013.

Grignon M. 2008. The role of education in health system performance. Economics of Education Review, 27: 299-307.

Grignon M. 2009a. La regulation par la concurrence entre assureurs. En Traite d'economie et de gestion de la santé, éd. Bras P-L, Pouvourville G, Tabuteau D, 209-214. Paris, France: Editions des sciences politiques et Editions de la Sante.

Grignon M. 2009b. Pourquoi les systemes de sante sont ils organises differemment? Revue Economique 60 (2): 545-558.

Health Canada. 2011. Canada’s health care system., as of 18 February 2013.

Horne F. 2012. Medicare's front door, primary health care, needs a remodel. Globe and Mail, 31 October., as of 18 February 2013.

Lazar H, Forest P-G, Lavis JN, Church J. eds. In Press. Paradigm freeze: why it is so hard to reform health care in Canada. Queen’s Policy Studies Series. Montreal and Kingston, Canada: McGill-Queen’s University Press.

Marchildon GP. 2006. Health systems in transition: Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.