Women and Freemasonry in France and Germany
The intent of this paper is not to discover or summarize the
debate on the origins of either institution. The objective is to
shed light on women’s views of themselves and their role in
society in eighteenth- and early nineteenth-centuries in Western
Europe. This will be illustrated by examples of women’s involvement in and influence on Freemasonry in France and Germany. The origins of women's involvement with Freemasonry will be discussed, therefore, only in an effort to display the above-mentioned objective, not to make a statement in the debate regarding the introduction of women into Freemasonry.
Beachy, Robert. “Freemasonry in Germany.” E-mail to the author. 09 October, 2002.
Bullock, Steven C. “Remapping Masonry: A Comment.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 33.2 (2000): 275.
Burke, Janet, and Margaret Jacob. “French Freemasonry, Women, and Feminist Scholarship.” Journal of Modern History 68 (1996): 515.
Burke, Janet. “Freemasonry, Friendship and Noblewomen: The Role of the Secret Society in Bringing Enlightenment Thought to Pre-Revolutionary Women Elites.” History of European Ideas 10.3 (1989): 283.
Burke, Janet. “Leaving the Enlightenment: Women Freemasons after the Revolution.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 33.2 (2000): 256.
Conder, Edward. “The Hon. Miss St. Leger and Freemasonry.” Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 8 (1825): 16.
Dotzauer, Winfried. Quellen zur Geschichte der deutschen Freimaurerei im 18. Jahrhundert. Frankfurt am Main, Ger.: Peter Lang GmbH, 1991. 5.
Endler, Renate and Elisabeth Schwarze. DieFreimaurerbestände im Geheimen Staatsarchiv Preußischer Kulturbesitz. Frankfurt am Main, Ger.: Peter Lang GmbH, 1994. 16.
Goodman, Dena. The Republic of Lettes: A Cultural History of the French Enlightenment. Ithaca, NY: 1994.
Hawkins, E. L. “Adoptive Masonry and the Order of the Mopses.” Ars Quatuor Coronatorum 24 (1911): 6-9.
Jacob, Margaret. “Exits from the Enlightenment: Masonic Routes.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 33.2 (2000): 251.
Lachmann, Heinrich and Schiffmann, G. A. Hochgrade der Freimaurerei. Graz, Aus.: Akademische Druck- u. Verlangsanstalt, 1974. 235.
Mackey, Albert. “Origin.” An Encyclopedia of Freemasonry and Its Kindred Sciences: Comprising the Whole Range of Arts, Sciences and Literature as Connected with the Institution. 1921 ed. Kila, MT: Kissinger, 1992.
Smith, N. and B. T. Norton. “The Constitution of Russian Political Freemasonry (1912).” Jahrbücher für Geschichte Osteuropas 34 (1986): 498.
Authors retain their copyright to articles published in The Sophie Journal. They grant the Journal the non-exclusive right to publish their work as part of the Journal in perpetuity. Articles published in the Journal also fall under Creative Commons licensing agreements, with attribution, as outlined here: