Doppelganger, Dreams, and Delusions: A Freudian Reading of Marie Eugenie delle Grazie's Der Schatten


  • Jared Loehrmann UC Davis



Very few critics have dealt with delle Grazie’s play, and those who have, have not considered the character of the Shadow in the way I am analyzing it here. Maria Mayer- Flaschberger mentioned the drama in her biography on delle Grazie, but without critical commentary. Similarly, even though more thorough, Bernhard Münz dedicated a few pages to Der Schatten in his book on the author. However, he approached the play from an angle very different to my analysis. For those unfamiliar with delle Grazie’s drama, I will first give a short synopsis. 


delle Grazie, Marie Eugenie. Der Schatten. Leipzig, Germany: Druck und Verlag Breitkopf und Härtel, 1902.

---. „ Der Sinn meines Dramas ‚Der Schatten’“ in Sämtliche Werke von M.E. delle Grazie. 9.Band. Leipzig: Breitkopf und Härtel, 1904.

Freud, Sigmund. “Das Unheimliche,” in E.T.A. Hoffmanns Leben und Werk in Daten und Bildern. Frankfurt am Main, Germany: Insel Verlag, 1968.

---. The Ego and the Id. New York: W.W. Norton, 1960. Mayer-Flaschberger, Maria. Marie Eugenie delle Grazie (1864-1931). München: Verlag Des süddeutschen Kulturwerks, 1984.

McFarlane, James. “Minds of Modernism,” in Modernism: A guide to European Literature 1890-1930. USA: Penguin Group Inc., 1991.

Münz, Bernhard. Marie Eugenie delle Grazie als Dichterin und Denkerin. Wien: Wilhelm Braumüller, 1902.

Schorske, Clarl E. Fin-de-Siècle Vienna. New York, NY: Vintage Books, 1961.